How to get Pollution Board Certificate for heat treatment of steel including hardening & tempering using salt

pollution certificate for steel manufacturing


Very few substances in this world are as common as steel and hence we can hardly function in its absence. Simply put, steel is an alloy produced by combining iron and other elements. Different types of steel exist, depending on what other elements are used apart from iron. Aluminum, Carbon, Manganese, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus, Silicon, and Sulfur are few elements that should be present for an alloy to be regarded as Steel. Other elements can also be added for transforming the properties of the steel, but they must be present as their exact ratio will affect the steel's hardness, durability, flexibility, etc.
Steel is engineered for its ultimate purpose starting with the elements used to make it. Then it requires heat treatment in a manner to shape it and cut into a final product.


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Steel is engineered for its ultimate purpose starting with the elements used to make it. Then it requires heat treatment in a manner to shape it and cut into a final product.

What is Heat Treatment?

Heat treatment involves different industrial, thermal and metalworking processes for altering the physical and sometimes chemical properties of a material. It involves heating or chilling, at normal to extreme temperatures, for achieving the desired result like hardening or softening a material. Heat treatment techniques include annealing, hardening, tempering, normalizing, quenching, and etc.

Different Heat Treatment Processes

a)  Annealing

Annealing is a heat treatment process where metals like aluminum, copper, steel, silver, or brass is heated to a certain temperature, maintained at that temperature for transformation some time, and then cooled by air. Annealing may be used before machining a metal for bettering its stability, making harder materials less prone to crack or fracture.

b)  Tempering

Tempering is used for increasing the resilience of alloys like steel as they are very hard but are often too brittle to be useful for majority purposes. Tempering is used for changing the hardness, ductility, and strength of metal, making it easier to machine. The metal is heated to a temperature below the critical point for reducing its brittleness and maintaining hardness.  For increasing plasticity with less hardness and strength, temperatures should be increased.

Another option is purchasing already hardened material or hardening such material before machining. Although machining becomes more difficult, the risk for the part sizes changing, unlike a post-machining heat treatment process is reduced. Also, the necessity for a grinding shop for tight finishes or tolerances is eliminated.

c)  Hardening

While heat treating for hardening a metal, it is heated to a temperature where the metal elements turn into a solution. Before this, defects in the crystal lattice structure of the metal are the fundamental source of ‘give’ or plasticity. By heat treating, those deficiencies are treated by turning the metal into a reliable solution with fine particles for strengthening it. Once thoroughly heated to the right temperature for producing a solid solution, the metal is quickly quenched for trapping the particles in solution.

In precipitation hardening, impurity particles are introduced to the metal alloy for increasing its strength.

d)  Normalizing

It is an annealing process where the steel is heated 150-200°F higher than in annealing and kept sufficiently long at the critical temperature for transformation. Steel treated in this method must be air cooled. Normalizing improves machinability, ductility, and strengthens the steel.

What are the important registrations & certificates required to set up/start/establish/incorporate a manufacturing facility for steel products?

a) Deciding on the status of legal identity

A business needs an identity and hence it is necessary to build the legal entity of the business as per available resources, goals, and requirements. If it is a partnership firm then it will be governed by the partnership act, if an LLP i.e., Limited Liability partnership then the LLP Act will come into the picture, and for private/public limited company will attract the provisions of the Companies Act, 2013.

b)  DIC/SME/SSI Registration

DIC registration of SSI units is non-mandatory but is beneficial i.e., District Industries Centre. Because this registration provides lots of benefits in taxation and loans etc. A provisional registration certificate is provided in the beginning and later when the manufacturing begins, a permanent registration certificate is issued.

Only small-scale and ancillary units can go for MSME or SSI registration if the investment in plant and machinery is below Rs.10 million.

Any industry not requiring an industrial license may apply as an SSI unit at DIC for Provisional Registration Certificate (PRC). Even the industries of Schedule II with employees below 50/100 may also apply for this registration which is valid for up to 5 years.

c) Pollution License

A pollution license is an official written document through which the State Pollution Control Board consents towards the establishment or operation of any potential business that may generate pollutants or trade effluents. Examples of ‘trade effluents include- chemical wastes, smoke emissions, flying ashes, etc. Usually, in two stages the licenses are obtained, i.e., consent to establish (obtained before the commencement of commercial activities) and consent to operate (obtained after completing the construction after obtaining the COE).

There are 2 consent certificates required for the license. The first one is consented to establish and is issued before the commercial operation begins, i.e. for constructing. The second license is for consent to operate and is issued after the construction work is complete and necessary for starting the commercial operation.

All existing industrial sectors are categorized into 4 groups by the Ministry of Environment Forest and Climate Change, i.e., red, orange, green, and white. carries out this classification.

Steel treatment plants come under the red category; hence pollution license is mandatory and will not be permitted to function in ecologically fragile or protected areas. Industries with a pollution index above 60 belong to the red category because they generate the highest number of emissions, effluents, and hazardous waste, and are the highest consumer of resources.

Following documents are required for obtaining COC/COE: a) satellite imagery of the project location, b) Project location layout, c) Project report containing details of the manufacturing process and raw materials, d) Investment Proof, e) Environmental statement, e) NOC Compliance report/Consent conditions, f) Certificate of completion of the effluent treatment plant or add-on pollution control, g) compliance with Environment clearance criteria.

For air consent/NOC: Specifications of air pollution control facility, diagram of monitoring facility, emission analysis report, compliance with air consent clauses

For authorization of chemical/hazardous waste: Incinerator details, details of hazardous wastes generated, compliance with hazardous waste authorization clauses.

Information on documents to be furnished for obtaining a CTE will be available on the website of a state’s pollution control board. Failing to obtain a CTE/CTO or Pollution license, will attract 6 months to 1 year of imprisonment, which may extend up to 6 years with a fine.

Applying for A Pollution License:

•   Obtain NOC/CTE.

•   Apply with site details, plans for pollution control, and industry registration certificates to the state pollution control board’s regional officer. NOC may be obtained from regional officers.

•   Apply online by logging into the respective state’s pollution control board’s website.

d) Ground water Abstraction NOC

The manufacturing process may require water and even the staff & labor require water for domestic usage. If the Municipal Authority or Gram Panchayat of the area are unable to supply the required water, then the business entity may be required to go for ground water abstraction. For the abstraction of Ground water, the business entity is required to take permission either from the Central Ground Water Authority or from the State Water Regulatory Authority.

e) Trademark Certificate

Trademark is necessary for creating a brand identity for which an application must be made through its online portal. Depending on the distinctiveness the Registrar for Trademarks might approve and issue the registration certificate. The trademark has to be renewed every 10 years by paying the renewal fee.

f) Factory License

For acquiring the factory license, an application must be made to the Office of the Directorate of Factories.

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