How to apply  for Pollution Board certificate for leather processing business?

How to apply  for Pollution Board certificate for leather processing business


Leather has been used from the beginning of time. The main raw material is animal hide or skin, which includes (to a lesser extent) reptiles, fish and birds. The tannery process entails transforming raw skin, which is a highly putrescible substance, into leather, which is a stable material that can be used to make a variety of items. A series of sophisticated chemical reactions and mechanical processes are involved in the entire process. Various pre- and post-treatment stages result in a finished product with specified attributes like stability, appearance, water resistance, temperature resistance, elasticity and perspiration and air permeability, among others.


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Leather is an intermediate industrial commodity having several applications in the consumer products industry's downstream sectors. Leather is a major material input for the latter and it is cut and constructed into shoes, apparel, leather products, furniture and a variety of other everyday objects. Different varieties of leather are required for different applications.

Other by-products of hide and skin tanning include dog biscuits and other animal food products, fine chemicals such as photography and cosmetics, soil conditioning and fertilisers. Leather production has long been associated with odours and water contamination. People involved in this business rarely enjoyed great social prestige in various societies, as it seemed to be an unavoidable result of the activity at the time. The majority of the basic phases of leather production have remained same, however the tanning sector has experienced significant modifications. Several significant advancements in environmental protection have been made.

The chemicals utilised, the raw materials used, and the effluents, wastes, and off-gases released during the tanning process all have a significant detrimental effect on air, surface and ground water, soil, and other natural resources. As a result, pollution control, waste output and disposal, chemical safety, accidents, and raw material/water/energy consumption must all be addressed.

Leather Market in India

  • The leather, leather products, and footwear industries in India play an important role in the Indian economy. This industry is noted for consistently high export revenues and is one of the country's top 10 foreign exchange earners.
  • During the 2019-2020 financial year, India exported $5.07 billion in footwear, leather, and leather products.
  • The sector benefits from a plentiful supply of raw materials, as India has 20% of the world's cattle and buffalo population and 11% of the world's goat and sheep population. Added to this are the advantages of trained labour, cutting-edge technology, increased industrial compliance with international environmental standards, and the associated industries' unwavering support.
  • The leather business employs around 4.42 million people, the most of whom are from the poorer sections of the society. With a 30% share of the market, women are the most common workers in the leather products industry.
  • India is the world's second-largest exporter of leather goods, third-largest exporter of saddlery and harness, and fourth-largest exporter of leather products.
  • The states of Tamil Nadu — Chennai, Ambur, Ranipet, Vaniyambadi, Vellore, Pernambut, Trichy, Dindigul, and Erode –. West Bengal – Kolkata; Uttar Pradesh – Kanpur, Agra, Noida, and Saharanpur; Maharashtra – Mumbai; Punjab – Jalandhar; Karnataka – Bengaluru; Telengana – Hyderabad; Haryana – Ambala, Gurgaon, Panchkula, Karnal, and Faridabad; Delhi; Madhya Pradesh – Dewas; Kerala – Kozhikode and Ernakulam are the key production centres for footwear, leather, and leather products in India

Future outlook of Leather Industry

The Leather and Footwear Sector is one of the 12 Focus Sectors where India may be a Global Supplier, according to the Indian government. With the implementation of several industrial development programmes as well as export promotion activities, the Indian leather industry aims to augment its past performance and inherent strengths of skilled manpower, innovative technology, increased industry compliance with international environmental standards, and dedicated support from allied industries.

Process of manufacturing of leather

  • The epidermis, areolar layer of fatty tissue, and inner corium make up the skin of animals. Corium contains a semi-soluble protein called "collagen," which is transformed into extremely tough leather after tanning. Hide refers to the skin of cows and buffaloes. The skin of goats and sheep is referred to as skin. Due to the restriction on cow slaughter in many parts of India, 80 percent of the hide available comes from animals that died naturally. Skins from goats and sheep, on the other hand, are byproducts of the meat business. Hides range in size from 1-3 square metres (m2) and weigh between 10 and 20 kilos (kg). Skins are smaller, with a surface area of 0.4–0.5 m2 and a weight of 1-2 kg. Slaughter hides and skins contain 60-70 percent moisture, making them susceptible to bacterial infection, which causes the hides and skins to degrade.
  • In a tannery, the preservation of hides and skins can be divided into four categories:
  1. Preservation of hides and skins in storage
  2. Tanning operations
  3. Beam house operations
  4. Post-tanning and finishing operations
  • Tanneries also use abatement strategies to treat the wastewater, solid waste, and air pollution produced during these processes. Wet processes refer to the operations carried out in the beam house, tanyard, and post-tanning regions, which are carried out in processing containers such as drums. Dry finishing activities are performed on the leather after it has been post-tanned.
  • The processes utilised in each of the categories above vary based on the raw materials used and the final goods intended. As a result, environmental impacts differ from tannery to tannery, necessitating a more extensive assessment at each unit/site.


The following are some of the environmental concerns linked with tanning and leather finishing:

  1. Trade Effluent/Waste water- In tannery processes, water is essential. For one kilogramme (kg) of raw hide/skin to be processed into finished leather, around 30-40 litres (L) of water is consumed. Surface water is used by the majority of Indian tanneries that are located near riverbanks or natural water bodies. Some tanneries also use ground water from their own open wells/tubewells located on their premises. Water is stored in open cement lined pits and ground level tanks in most traditional tanneries. Water would be pumped directly to the process zones from these storage tanks.
  1. Trade emission/Air Pollution-   Source of Air emission

Source Operations in Tannery

Emission to air

Degreasing Finishing

Organic Solvents

Spray-finish Machines Dryers


Beam house and Effluent treatment


Beam House Deliming Dehairing Drying after dyepenetration


Storage handling of powdery chemicals Dry shaving Buffing Dust removal machines Milling drums, Stalking


Odour Emission to air

Beam house operations


Beam house operations ETP collection tanks ETP Primary Treatment Units ETP Sludge Dewatering System ETP Anaerobic Lagoons


Finishing Operations


ETP Anaerobic Lagoons


  1. Solid waste- Salt from raw skin / hide dusting; raw skin / hide trimmings; hair from the liming / dehairing process, which may contain lime and sulphides; and fleshing from raw skins / hides are all examples of solid waste. Wet-blue shavings, which contain Cr2O3; wet-blue trimming, which is formed during finishing procedures and contains CrO, syntans, and dye; and buffing dust, which also contains CrO, syntans, and dye, are examples of other solid waste from the tannery sector. Due to the presence of organic matter and sulphides, the reducing qualities of tannery sludge stabilise Cr(III) with regard to Cr(VI).
  1. Hazardous waste Material- A range of Hazardous chemicals are used in the tanning and leather finishing operations. As outlined in the General EHS Guidelines, guidance on the management of hazardous materials, including handling, storage, and transportation, must be followed.

What are the important registrations and licenses are required to setup Factory for Manufacturing of leather?

  1. Determine the status of legal entity- In order to start any type of business in India, you must first create a legal entity for your company. In India, there are six different ways to establish a legal corporation for a leather manufacturing plant. -
  • Proprietorship-It is a sort of legal entity that is run by a single person, with the firm's assets and liabilities belonging to the same people who own the company. There is no difference between a firm and its owner.
  • Partnership- It's a sort of legal entity run by 2 or more people, with the firm's assets and liabilities all belonging to the same people who control the company..  
  • Private limited company- When 2 or more persons desire to share their profits and liabilities and have registered their business under the Companies Act 2013, they form a Private Limited Company.
  • Public limited company- When seven or more persons want to share their profit and liabilities, they form a company under the Companies Act of 2013, which is not a private company. A ‘Public Company,' as defined by section 2(71) of the Companies Act 2013, is a company that has a minimum paid-up share capital and is not a private company.
  • One person Company- A "One Person Company" is defined as a company with only one member, according to section 2(62) of the Companies Act 2013. It's essentially a private company with a few distinctive features.
  • Limited Liability Partnership- Limited Liability Partnership (LLP) is a corporate business structure that allows people with managerial and entrepreneurial skills to join and operate in a functional, innovative, and systematic manner, while providing limited liability benefits and allowing partners to organise their internal structure as a partnership..
  1. DIC/SSI/MSME/Udyog Aadhar Registration

Small scale industries and ancillary units (i.e., businesses with a plant and machinery investment of less than Rs. 10 million) shall register with the Director of Industries of the concerned state government.

  • The registration mechanism has no legal foundation. Units are usually registered to receive benefits, incentives, or assistance from the federal or state governments. The following items are commonly included in the Centre's incentive programme::

- Credit prescription (priority sector lending), interest rate differentials, and so on.

- Excise Exemption Scheme - Direct Tax Laws Exemption.

- Statutory support, such as the Interest on Delayed Payments Act and reservation.

  1. Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) Certification/ Environment Clearnce (EC)

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a planning tool that incorporates environmental concerns into the development process from the start and suggests necessary mitigation measures. Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) is a term that refers to the assessment of environmental impacts that are likely to occur as a result of a project. As per the notification of Ministry of Environment, Forest, Climate Change, Occupier need to take permission from MOEF for manufacturing of leather. Stage (1) Screening; Stage (2) Scoping; Stage (3) Public Consultation; and Stage (4) Appraisal are the four stages of the environmental clearance process.

  1. State Pollution Board certification/NOC/Authorization-

Before establishing a facility, every business firm must obtain prior authorization from the Concerned State Pollution Control Board. Every state has a pollution control department tasked with monitoring any pollution that occurs within its borders. The Central Pollution Control Board, which is overseen by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, divides industries into four categories. Leather manufacturing is classified as RED in most states. A business entity must obtain the following permissions.

  • Consent to establish (CTE) - Occupier has to apply for consent to establish before construction of plant, or before installation of machine in already constructed premises.
  • Consent to Operate (CTO) – Before operating the plant, the occupier must apply for permission to do so. Before granting permission to operate, the concerned officer must visit the plant to ensure that the machine installation is complete and the plant is ready to operate.

What are the documents are required to obtain State Pollution Board Consent Certificate

  1. Consent to Establish/Consent to Operate
  1. Pan card and UID of Authorized Person
  2. Pan card of unit (Except Proprietorship)
  3. Property Paper/Rent Agreement with Rent permission
  4. Layout Plan
  5. Project Report
  6. Environment Clearence
  7. Capacity Certificate
  8. CLU( in case of Agriculture land)
  9. Authorization Latter (Except Proprietorship)
  10. Electricity bill/ water bill (If any)
  11. CGWA Permission
  12. ETP/STP details
  13. MOA and AOA/Partnership deed

What is the procedure the to obtain Pollution certificate/NOC /Authorization

  • Create user id and password
  • File an application through user id and password
  • Payment of govt fee
  • Inspection will conduct by concerned officer
  • ATR preparation by department
  • File sent for meeting or Regional officer or Head office as the case may be
  • Approved in meeting or by Regional officer or Head office as the case may be
  • Download certificate from Pollution control’s website
  1. No-Objection Certificate from Central Ground Water Authority (CGWA)

Every Business entity needs to take permission from Central Ground Water Authority from extracting of Ground Water. The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 was adopted by the Indian Parliament to regulate, monitor, and manage pollution, as well as to protect the environment in the Union Territory of India. The Central Ground Water Authority was established under Section 3 (3) of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986, with the goal of developing and preserving all of India's water resources for future generations.

For more information on Central Ground water click on metacorp

  • Trademark -  A identifiable insignia, phrase, word, or symbol that designates a certain product and legally distinguishes it from all other items of its sort is referred to as a trademark. A trademark is a symbol that uniquely identifies a product as belonging to a certain firm and acknowledges that business's ownership of the brand. Trademarks are a sort of intellectual property that can either be registered or not.

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